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What is PhD?

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It is the highest academic degree that can be had beyond Master Degree.

The minimum qualification required for getting admitted to PhD program are:

  • For PhD in Engineering/Technology: Bachelor Degree (Engineering/Technology) OR Master Degree (Engineering/Technology)
  • For PhD in Non-Engineering/Technology: Master Degree (Non-Engineering/Technology)

Status of your chosen institution

The rank of the institution matters in case of Bachelor or Master degrees where the syllabus, professors of international repute, examination standard etc. make the difference. But PhD is a different type of program where you have to find out something new in some form with the world as the boundary. You are just utilizing the resources of the institution. Your research work must be recognized by a reputed international journal where the reviewers will give you rating. If you get a lower rating being a candidate from a reputed institution than a candidate with higher rating from a low ranked institution, you will fall behind. It is obvious that the judges are not only from your institution but also from international community of scientists/researchers from different institutions worldwide.


Duration: 6 months or 1 year

What is there in Coursework

At least 3 papers (one of them is Research Methodology, the others may be related to your specific research domain).

After completion of coursework

You will be offered a research area as available with the institution along with a supervisor from the department/school of your admission. If your research area relates to more than one stream, you may opt for a co-supervisor from the other departments/schools.

After allocation of research area and a supervisor

Start doing literature survey, explore the works and note down what others have done till date over the chosen area.

After an exhaustive search, identify a problem area yet to be solved.

After identifying a problem area

Start collecting data, thinking over an algorithm or any other matter according to your research.

After solving the problem

Submit a paper to an international journal and start writing thesis so that you can complete it within 6 months.

You will be called for a Defense Program where you will have to defend your research work against counterattacks by the experts who will definitely try to find out flaw in your work and prove you wrong.

Overcome this defense and wait for the phone call when somebody from the institution will call you and say, 

Congratulations Dr. X, the Doctoral Committee of the Institution is pleased to award you PhD degree!!

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Getting job with a degree in correspondence mode

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Some recruiters have a notion that students of regular mode are better in performance than those of correspondence one. So they prefer the regular ones. But the reason of laying off their employees after 6 months or so due to their “poor performance” is still answerless.

Everybody should understand that mode of study, marks etc are not the only parameters with which we can judge a person’s ability. This has been told in many places like films, advertisements etc. Still it is hard to change a prevalent system. There are numerous instances of failure on the part of a candidate who secured high marks in his/her examinations. He/she may also be from a reputed institute.

You can score higher marks in two ways:

  1. Learn the subject properly (then only you can solve a problem independently)
  2. Rote learning where people memorise the lessons without proper understanding (at times, you will face difficulty in independent problem solving)

In many countries like the US, the interviewers look for the abilities of those people who can solve their current problems they are facing. These problems are hampering their company’s performance. And they simply want to get rid of them. They may just have a eyewash over the candidate’s academic qualifications. Because they know that the person sitting in front of them will save them, not his/her degrees.

The academic qualifications of course matters when you are a fresher. When you are at least 2 years experienced, your academic degrees and mark-sheets are irrelevant to the recruiters. Then the main focus will be on your performance in your previous projects.

So, do keep learning, and not mugging up. The world always needs a quality person. For that, ups and downs of job market do not matter. There are many instances of persons who achieved height without formal education, set aside correspondence. Google them out and you will be glad to watch their excellency. Here are a few links you may consider visiting:


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Taking preparation of GRE

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GRE (Graduate Record Examination) is an examination required by the American universities for admission purpose to higher studies. Besides, a student is required to take TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language) if he/she is from non-English speaking country.

In GRE, there are six sections:

Analytical writing section

  • Issue task – to write an essay on a topic  (maximum 30 minutes)
  • Argument task – an argument will be given, you will either for it or against it with proper justification (maximum 30 minutes)

Verbal Reasoning section 1

  • Comprehension reading with vocabulary (20 questions, maximum 30 minutes)

Verbal Reasoning section 2

  • Comprehension reading with vocabulary (20 questions, maximum 30 minutes)

For preparation of UGC NET Computer Science, visit

Quantitative Reasoning section 1

  • High school level mathematics from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, data interpretation etc. (20 questions, maximum 35 minutes)

Quantitative Reasoning section 2

  • High school level mathematics from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, data interpretation etc. (20 questions, maximum 30 minutes)

Experimental or research section

  • May be quantitative or verbal type (not counted for scoring purpose)

You should emphasize on all the sections above, because you do not know which section they are going to treat as experimental.

You have to score 320+ for a good chance of getting admitted to premiere universities. Please do not take it for granted that a good score in GRE will help you to get admission to the universities. This is just a score and one of the criteria the admission cells pay heed to. There are other matters to be taken care of – your academic qualifications, the marks obtained, the SOP (Statement of Purpose) and the LOR (Letter of Recommendation).

There are several books available for the preparation of GRE. Barron’s, Kaplan, ETS Official, Manhattan Prep are among the good books. These books carry CDs inside for your preparation and mock test.

Also there are some institutions in all the major cities who will help you with your preparation for GRE. They provide classes, training, mock tests and even help you with guidance for selection of the universities according to your criteria.

Note: The information above conforms to the current GRE examination structure when written and is subject to change. Please visit relevant websites and centers for the latest updates.

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The reason of computer programming

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People do computer programming. Some do it good while others get frustrated.

First you should know why you do programming? Because you want the machine to give output according to your need. For example, you want to see all the prime numbers in a given range on the computer screen. You enter the range, but nothing happens. Because the machine is a stupid one and do not understand what you are talking about. You ask it to hurt somebody for no good and it will do it. You ask it to destroy itself and it will do that exactly without hesitation.

Now, you write a program in its language (not our human language). The computer must be able to read and understand your statements without any confusion or ambiguity. So you have to check your statements thoroughly before submitting the document to the computer.

Consider the following snippet in C

                for(i=0 ; i>=0 ; i++)


                             //No statement


The loop block has no statement inside with no upper limit. The controller of the loop is the variable i.

  1. The starting value of i is 0, that’s fine.
  2. The condition is “i should be greater than 0″.
  3. The increment of i will be by 1 every time the execution of the body statement completes.

The loop starts with i‘s value 0 and keeps increasing by 1. And every time the execution of the body statement completes, it meets the condition as TRUE. Consequently the statement is executed again, and again and again.


It will go on and on. It will never get irritated and raise complaint – “Hey, why are you making me run this loop that has no specific job?” Because I told you that it is a stupid machine.

Now I hope you have got my point. You have to make the computer understand properly what to do. Actually you have one thing in your mind and coding something else that your eyes are overlooking.

The trick is – BECOME YOURSELF THE COMPILER. Assume that you have got the code instead of the compiler. This is called Dry Run. Now by reading that code, find out the output. You will win for sure.

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